Culvert Lining

Concrete Cloth™ (CC) Geosynthetic Composite Cementitious Mat can be used to rapidly reline and refurbish existing culvert structures suffering from environmental degradation and erosion. CC provides a remediation solution which is fast, easy and cost effective to install.

Replacing existing infrastructure can prove costly, difficult and time-consuming, typically requiring excavation and the removal of existing structures which is extremely difficult, requires heavy machinery and a large site team. It can also often require road closures when culverts are nearby roadways.

Concrete Cloth joints can be thermally welded or sealed with mortar to effectively reduce water loss. Typically, Concrete Cloth replaces 100-150 mm of poured or sprayed concrete. Therefore lining a channel or reservoir with just 5, 8 or 13mm of CC minimizes capacity losses associated with conventional solutions. CC has also been tested by the TRI Institute in the US to ASTM 6460 and shown to have a Manning’s number of n = 0.011. A low Manning’s number such as this improves the channel flow characteristics and overall efficiency.

Culvert Lining

In November 2014, Concrete Cloth™ (CC) GCCM* was used to reline a steel corrugated culvert pipe. The existing pipe had broken down through flow erosion and weathering. Water was flowing through the bottom of the culvert and was compromising the base soils below which threatened the integrity of the road above that carries heavy loads from logging activities. A road closure would be required to replace the culvert and was not an option at this time. Concrete Cloth was a much more cost effective solution for this problem and was chosen due to its speed of installation, its ability to easily accommodate changes in culvert profile and its minimal environmental impact.

Culvert Lining

In August 2013, Concrete Concrete Cloth™ (CC) GCCM* was used to reline a steel corrugated pipe culvert in the Scottish borders. The existing bitumen coating on the pipe had broken down from flow erosion and weathering, resulting in an increase in silt, debris and vegetation growth in the culvert. This started to compromise the culvert and cause it to degrade. Installing a new culvert was cost prohibitive and would involve lane closures of the nearby road. CC was chosen due to its speed of installation, its ability to easily conform to changes in culvert profile and its minimal environmental impact, authorized for use in live water courses. The installation was completed in a week and a half, including the time taken to divert water and prepare the site.

Culvert Lining

In September 2014, Concrete Concrete Cloth™ (CC) GCCM* was used to line a culvert in Earlston, Scotland. The culvert was failing and previous lining/remediation attempts had been unsuccessful. Shotcrete was considered as an alternative, however this would have resulted in a much lengthier installation, as well as requiring much more complex logistics as access to the full length of the culvert was limited. Additionally there was concern over the environmental implications of installing Shotcrete in this location. 450sqm of CC5TM were installed by 4 people in 4 days in a live water course. The client was very impressed with the installation and CC is likely to be used on further culvert projects.

Culvert Lining

In March 2014, Concrete Concrete Cloth™ (CC) GCCM* was specified to remediate a culvert in New Zealand. Concrete Canvas® GCCM was selected due to the culvert being difficult to access, the installation speed and the cost effectiveness of CC. Sprayed concrete was considered, but the damp and cold conditions combined with the bed being lined with sediment would have made it exceptionally difficult to use this method. In total 80sqm of CC8TM were installed by 3 people in just 6 hours (with 8 hours of site preparation) when the client had allowed for 2 days. Furthermore CC’s low alkalinity and low wash out rate meant the works did not negatively impact the local ecology.

*Geosynthetic Composite Cementitious Mat

Concrete Cloth Characteristics

Concrete Cloth is a flexible cement impregnated fabric that hardens on hydration to form a thin, durable water proof and fire proof concrete layer.

Essentially, it's concrete on a roll Just Add Water.

Easy To Use

Concrete Cloth is available in man portable rolls for applications with limited access or where heavy plant equipment is not available.

There is no need for mixing or measuring, the concrete is premixed and cannot be over hydrated. It will set in fresh and sea water.


Once hydrated, Concrete Cloth remains workable for 2 hours and hardens to 80% strength within 24 hours.

Accelerated or retarded formulations can be produced to meet specific customer requirements.


Concrete Cloth has good drape characteristics, allowing it to take up the shape of complex surfaces including those with a double curvature. Unset Concrete Cloth can be cut or tailored using basic hand tools.

Hydrocarbon Resistance

CC offers hydrocarbon resistance to BS:14414; based on a 56 day immersion test at 50°C


The fibre reinforcement prevents cracking, absorbs energy from impacts and provides a stable failure mode.


Concrete Cloth is chemically resistant, has good weathering performance and will not degrade in UV.

Water Proof

The PVC backing on one surface ensures that the material is completely water proof and chemically resistant.

Fire Proof

Concrete Cloth is a ceramic and will not burn.

CO2 Savings

Concrete Cloth is the only way of laying a thin concrete layer from a prefabricated roll of material.

This enables up to 150 mm of poured concrete to be replaced with just 8 mm for many surfacing applications.

As a result, material savings of 95% can be achieved for a typical construction project.

This directly reduces the CO2 footprint of construction work not only through material savings but also through reduced road transport and time on-site.

Low Wash Out

Concrete Cloth traps dry concrete powder in a 3-dimensional fibre matrix. Testing based on BS8443 to indicate the effect of underwater setting, shows that Concrete Cloth loses only 3% by mass.

By comparison, specialized underwater concretes typically lose between 10-15% while also requiring much larger volumes to be poured.


Concrete Cloth uses a specialized high early strength concrete with a limited alkaline reserve. Unlike most concretes, it is not classified as an irritant and is less damaging to the environment.

Environment Agency Approval (UK)

Concrete Cloth was approved for use by the Environment Agency (EA) Biodiversity team in 2010 for the Church Village Bypass Project.

Benefits cited included ‘surface roughness to provide diversity in the channel's morphology’ and its ability to introduce ‘sinuosity in the channel line’.

Several projects have since been granted approval on a case-by-case basis and the EA recently purchased Concrete Cloth directly for internal use as a weed inhibitor.


Untreated Concrete Cloth will naturally ‘green’ over time as the textured top surface allows moss growth, whilst the fibre-reinforced concrete layer will prevent root-growing vegetation, which would otherwise restrict water flow and increase maintenance costs.

Nuna Innovations Inc.

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